Nothing, Something, Everything
Nothing, Something, Everything
On March 7, 2020, nine artist groups launched an art payload called Sojourner 2020, which was loaded with 18 artworks, aboard SpaceX CRS-20 to the International Space Station in Low-Earth Orbit. The payload completed approximately 12 million miles (19.3 million km) journey around our blue planet in 29 days and 48 minutes, and berthed to the ISS. The payload returned to Earth on April 7.
The projects on board Sojourner 2020 were selected through MIT Media Lab Space Exploration Initiative’s first international artwork open call to the ISS, and the launch opportunity was provided by the initiative.
My three projects, Nothing, Something, Everything, are dedicated to Sei Ono, my nephew who was born on Christmas Eve of 2019, and to all the current and future generations of children.
September 6, 2020
FOR ARS ELECTRONICA 2020
This is the story of how my three projects came into being and their journey to the outer space in spring of 2020. On this occasion, my purpose is to invite you to behind-the-scenes of the Sojourner project. I therefore made my research materials and parts of my diary available, hoping that that would add clarity to my ideas and the process in which I engage to create a work. I hope that soon all countries will recover from the global COVID-19 pandemic so that we can gather in person to explore exhibitions once again.
How far are we from the Moon? Instead of hearing it is 238,900 miles on average, one might soon hear a voice saying, “we will be landing on the moon shortly.” With where we are today with technology and vision, I think it is a matter of time until that becomes a reality. Soon, the mankind is going back to the Moon. This time both men and women will walk on its surface. Then we are headed to the red planet Mars. For the generations born after the Apollo program ended, I think we live in an exciting and important time of space exploration. And I firmly believe that it demands our responsibility to both intellectually and humanly examine why, what for and for whom we explore the space. I’m curious, are we going to space for humanity or for a political benefit? We may not have an answer to this, but we should be thinking. I’m curious, do we need a passport to land on the other planet? What law or whose law would bound our everyday lives in space? Would a space company refuse to fly certain nationalities? Would there be a collection point of our fingerprints? A time-zone? A common language? A common currency? Do we see rich and poor? Do we see a certain race or an ethnic group dominating more than the other? I’m curious, do men and women fall in love in space like we do on the planet Earth? Do we love each other? Do we continue to be indifferent and fight each other? Do we smile or cry? Becoming a multi-planetary species probably will not change the way we humans are essentially, at least I cannot imagine that to happen in the foreseeable future. We are not a perfect being even if there were such a thing. This is why I think it is important to participate in the space exploration and the thinking of it. Because if we do not think, someone will decide the future for us. And for me, it is also important for the reason that I can look forward to wake up every morning with immensity to dream in.
Commercial Resupply Services to the International Space Station
Launch date: 7 March 2020, 04:50:31 UTC
Berthing date: 9 March 2020, 12:18 UTC
Landing date: 7 April 2020, 18:50 UTC
Berthing: 29 days and 48 minutes
Mission: 31 days 13 hours 59 minutes
Photo: A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida at 11:50 p.m. EST on March 6, 2020. Credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tim Terry
Zero gravity, Lunar gravity, and Martian gravity
Photo: Sojourner 2020 loaded with all artists work and integrated for operation. Credit: Xin Liu, MIT Media Lab Space Exploration Initiative
A 1.5U size unit (100mm x 100mm x 152.4mm) designed and engineered by artist and engineer Xin Liu, features a three-layer telescoping structure, which creates three different “gravities:” Zero gravity, Lunar gravity, and Martian gravity. Each layer of the structure rotates independently. The top layer remains still in weightlessness, while the middle and bottom layers spin at different speeds to produce centripetal accelerations that mimic Lunar gravity and Martian gravity, respectively. Each layer carries six pockets that can hold projects.
Artists on board Sojourner 2020
Janet Biggs (USA)
Levi Cai & Andrea Ling (USA & Canada)
Erin Genia (American Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate)
Luis Guzman (Chile)
Adriana Knouf (USA)
Kat Kohl (USA)
Xin Liu & Lucia Monge (China & Peru)
Masahito Ono (Japan)
Henry Tan (Thai)
NOTHING, SOMETHING, EVERYTHING (PER ASPERA AD ASTRA)
Paris Air, Paris Agreement, Longing and Belonging
Photo: A Sojourner 2020 pocket in Paris France. Credit: Jonas Cuénin
Nothing, Something, Everything (2020)
Ono’s project weaves a vision of our planet’s future climate and our existence upon it. A magnetic cylinder, cylindrical in shape, that yearns for and belongs to Earth’s magnetic poles, regardless of its whereabouts, becomes a symbol of our deepest aspirations. A roll of Minox subminiature camera film, holding the 2016 Paris Agreement and other climate documents, unveils more about us than any message aboard the Voyager spacecraft could. The Paris Air, captured in a minuscule capsule, remains hidden and untouched by human hands, as it forever embodies the spirit of the city where the COP 21 delegates once convened. Through these offerings to the universe, Ono’s project encourages those of us who live on this planet today to look forward and inspire future generations or perhaps even extraterrestrial beings who may one day discover these relics from our world.
The first COVID-19 cases in France were confirmed on January 24, 2020, just a day before I landed in Paris. At the time I was there, I did not understand the magnitude of what was to come.
1cc of Paris Air
On my second day in Paris, I awakened at 6 am in what I believed was once a maid’s quarters in a building on Avenue du President Kennedy near Passy. As I opened the small window facing the Seine, the aroma of freshly baked croissants and a bottle of Evian for my morning meal filled my senses. I reached out my arms and sampled the air, the pocket swinging in the gentle morning breeze, tightly sealed as a precious memory.
At 2 pm, my photographer Jonas and I met outside Restaurant Le Coq, with Kyoko joining us. Though it might seem cliché, I longed to capture the iconic and symbolic Eiffel Tower as a representation of the industrial revolution.
Shortly after 3 pm, we finished the shoot, and Maya invited me to a recital. On the way, I shared the morning’s air sample, and laughter filled the air as my friends told me about the increased traffic due to Transportation Strikes, causing the worst air pollution in Paris. Yet, the sight of people carrying baguettes in the city, along with the delectable cheese and music played by my friends, filled my heart with warmth. We shared Indian curry together, and I returned to Passy, the Eiffel Tower darkened, casting its shadow upon the night.
During our discussion of the project in late December 2019, curator Xin Liu questioned why the air sample had to be from Paris, suggesting that it could have been taken from my hometown of New York City instead. However, I believed that providing a specific location for the sample was conceptually significant. As such, I chose Paris, where the delegates of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) had convened. Specifically, I selected the location where they had gathered as the site for air sampling.
In one of the articles about Sojourner 2020 published after the CRS-20 launch, a journalist pointed out that my Parisian Air is an homage to Marcel Duchamp’s 50cc of Paris Air (1919). It is a coincidence that the two artworks share the location of Paris, but what artist today could escape from their influences? I saw Duchamp’s work at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 2013, the year I arrived in the United States, and knew very little about art. I remember feeling shocked at the thought that his artwork contained “everything.” It was my first and rare encounter with a shocking masterpiece. In 2020, although the context is different, a hundred and one years after Duchamp created his work, air from Paris has reached the Low-Earth Orbit.
Photos: A Sojourner 2020 pocket on the artist hands. Credit: Jonas Cuénin
When I submitted an initial drawing of the artwork to NASA, I included a description that simply stated “it is empty.” However, when they asked me to clarify the meaning of the emptiness, I added some lines beneath the drawing. The description read: “Sample 3 is intentionally left empty. The pocket is sealed in Paris where the COP 21 delegates had met in 2015 to discuss Climate Change. The pocket contains air sampled in Paris in the year 2020, but no liquid.”
On the ground, air is something we take for granted, and we struggle to describe it to others. Even though I called it “empty,” I am aware that air is not truly empty.
Once I received the freshly manufactured pocket from Liu in New York City in mid-January, I took a few days off from work and booked a ticket to Paris for three days. My itinerary included the following: sampling the air, a photo shoot, seeing the Boltanski show at Pompidou, visiting Cathédrale Notre-Dame, attending some gallery openings, and meeting with friends.
January 28, 2020
I am writing this mid-air, where the bread on this plane’s package has two dates stamped on it: 08/22/2019 EXP 5/22/2020. I assume the bread was produced last summer and will remain fresh until May of this year. However, I cannot help but wonder if something is wrong.
This morning, I woke up alone at 4 am in the same loft, tidied up the bed, took a shower, and walked to the bus stop near the Eiffel Tower before dawn. The streets were quiet, and there were only a few people around. I think Paris smells particularly good in the rain, but I say that about almost every city I visit. It must be my thing, the sweet earthy scent on a rainy day brings me joy. Most people I know do not like the rain, but when I meet a girl who does, I tend to fall for her. I was alone on the bus. At the airport, a young lady who I supposed was on training with her supervisor at the check-in desk gave me SSSS on my plane ticket and smiled. (Getting SSSS marked on your ticket at any airport in the world means you have been randomly selected for additional security screening before boarding.) “That’s fine, I have no money to spend at Duty-Free, I have time,” I told myself. However, I also thought for a moment, how would I explain my 1cc of Paris Air if the officer asks? It might look suspicious.
Photo: March 22, 2020 at 23:38:46 UTC, Western Europe seen from the ISS. On the bottom left is London, in the center is Belgium, Netherlands and Germany and on the right is Paris at night. Credit: The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center
On 30 exposures I made on 9mm wide x 400mm long MINOX size orthopanchromatic film roll are:
1. Paris Agreement (except for the cover page that is original, visually reformatted without making any changes to the original content)
2. Adoption of the Paris Agreement (same treatment applied)
3. Depositary Notification by the United States, declaring withdrawal from the agreement effective 4 November 2020.
4. The very first human-taken photograph of Earthrise that has taught us the fragility of the planet and the environment we live in. NASA PHOTO ID: AS08-13-2329 photographed on Christmas Eve of 1968 by astronaut, William Anders aboard Apollo 8.
The U.S. withdrawal from Paris Agreement is currently effective since November 4, 2020, the day following the 2020 U.S. presidential election. The United States is responsible for 25% of global cumulative CO2 emission. European Union-28 (U.K. included) 22%, China 12.7%. Russia 6%, Japan 4% and India 3%. (1751-2017 data)
Paris Agreement was an accomplishment at least to the level that the countries were able to agree on its set goal of “keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.” However, we should be worried by the fact that the Climate Scientists have been actively warning about climate change since at least around late 1960s and we are now in 21st century, year 2020, watching it unfold rapidly in front of our own eyes.
CO2 in the Atmosphere and annual emissions (1750-2019)
Carbon Dioxide over 80,000 years
Photo: AS08-13-2329, The first Earthrise photograph taken by a human on Christmas Eve of 1968 from Apollo 8. Credit: NASA
Longing and Belonging
Despite the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit, a magnet is still attracted to the Earth’s strong magnetic field. A cylinder-shaped magnet that points back to Earth’s magnetic North and South in absence of gravity, regardless of its location, is a metaphor of our longing and belonging.
I found Paris in astronauts’ photographs from March 22, 2020, and cried
The following video created from the 1,661 photographs shows the path indicated on this map.
2020-03-22 23:35:00 UTC to
2020-03-22 23:48:49 UTC
Average Altitude 422.65km
Average Velocity 27589.73km/h
CLIMATE AND ME
Something about the Earth and my presence in it
I was born in 1983 in Japan. Because my father registered my birth in Tokyo, I am registered as born in Tokyo, but my birthplace was in a country side. My maternal grandparents who were both famers had lived in a small town called Shizuma (静間) in Shimane prefecture not very far from Hiroshima. Shizuma means in-between the quietness, a quiet place or a place in its gentleness, and it is what it is named after. The street lights were scattered like one is hardly visible from the other. A diesel train passed by only few times a day. A post delivery man would remember everyone’s name in town. People never locked doors. We had running water and electricity, but we burned wood to boil water to take a bath. We had a refrigerator but a small river was still the best place to chill the watermelons. It was such a place that I was born and had spent much of summer time in my childhood.
Compared to many of my friends who had their grandparents also lived in Tokyo, I was quite proud of the fact that my family had a place like Shizuma. Although they were not wealthy, they seem to have had most of the things that they needed to live a moderate happy life. Their house was over a hundred years old. We had all the windows open in summer to allow air to breeze through the entire house and in winter, we sat together inside a futon table with charcoal burning inside. We picked vegetables from our garden and raised rice crops. In short, it was a prewar Japanese style house with a touch of few modern day items and a lifestyle that goes with it. I always disliked coming back to the big cities after my stay there in summer and winter. I felt so detached from nature.
Perhaps I took a long way to tell you what my childhood was like. And it may sound to some of you like a recollection of one’s childhood nostalgia, but what I am getting at is how far we have come from the days our lives were surrounded by and nurtured by nature. When Climate Scientists talk about climate change, they talk about: Carbon Oxide, Global Temperature, Arctic Sea Ice, Ice Sheet, Sea Level and more recently the extreme weather events attributed to climate change. And when we talk about climate change, we frequently argue how consequential the burning of fossil fuels are, and blame the companies and the governments for not taking actions, but we ourselves talk very little about our modern-day lifestyle that is a contributing factor to climate change. At large, climate change is part of a larger environmental problem, and human activities are the main contributing factor to the problem. Either directly or indirectly, knowingly or unknowingly, one way or the other, our everyday livelihood interferes with nature and its ecosystem. As a result of ecosystem collapsing in many places, we are experiencing a total environmental crisis and in it is climate change. Having said all this, I do not ask someone to go back to a lifestyle like the one my grandparents had. We live in 2020, and there must be a suitable lifestyle for the time we live in. I do not ask someone to give up a comfortable lifestyle, but ask to be moderate about consumptions. I think the time demands our responsibility to rethink our livelihood to become more environmentally friendly and sustainable, and perhaps be reconnected with nature. The young generations are changing and that is a hope, but the rest must also actively participate. I do not believe the achievement of total and universal behavioral change is possible, but I believe in diminishing the unnecessary wastefulness and the unintended human sorrow.
Carbon Dioxide Abundance (1970-2020)
When I was drafting my ideas for Sojourner 2020 last summer, my sister-in-law was carrying a baby. Thinking about the world where he was about to join, gave me an opportunity to rethink many things about how I want to live and what I wanted to create as an artist. The projects that I placed inside Sojourner is my hope and dreams for the world in which my nephew can live in peace and happiness in a safer environment. Now facing the works that had returned to the Earth in front of me, my hope grows that the works continue to carry my massages to the future.
We have a continuous satellite observation data
of Arctic Sea Ice since October 1978.
This is Eastern Arctic 30 Day Sea Ice Forecast
published on the day I was born.
This is Western Arctic 30 Day Sea Ice Forecast
published on the day I was born.
This is Southern Ice Limit
published the following day.
I have been long thinking about what would be the solution to make someone feel that climate change is also his and her own problem. Somehow, I needed to take a stand-as a witness. As a warning. That is why I recently started comparing my birthday in 1983 with that in 2020 to see what 37 years has done to the planet. For those of us living today, we cannot deny the fact that our very own existence and livelihood is in someway a cause of climate change. Perhaps what one person can do to improve the situation is very little, but perhaps the result is very little because we think a person can do very little. When the nation states are trapped in the conversations of whose doing more and whose doing less, whose paying more and whose paying less, and whose benefitting and whose not benefitting, I believe it is the responsibility of each individual to do something about it and to think of the way to demand and convince your government to take a firm action.
Minimum Arctic Sea Ice Extent
Arctic sea ice reaches its minimum each September. Comparing 1983 with 2020 alone perhaps does not do scientific justice, but the trend is evident. 7.39 million sq/km (1983) of ice coverage has declined to 3.92 million sq/km (2020). This change has happened in my life time.
“Next month, Arctic sea ice extent will reach its annual minimum, which is poised to be among the lowest on record. The trend is clear: Summer ice covers half the area it did in the 1980s, and because it is thinner, its volume is down 75%. With the Arctic warming nearly three times faster than the global average, most scientists grimly acknowledge the inevitability of ice-free summers, perhaps as soon as 2035. A warming atmosphere is far from the only factor speeding up the ice loss. Strengthening currents and waves are pulverizing the ice. And a study published this month suggests deep heat in the Arctic Ocean, long held at bay, has risen and is now melting the ice from below.”
Science 28 Aug 2020:
Vol. 369, Issue 6507, pp. 1043-1044
We learned about Greenhouse effect as early as 1856. An American scientist, Mrs. Eunice Newton Foote rightly predicted more than 200 years ago, the warming of the Earth as a result of increased CO2 volume in atmosphere. In other words, we have known it as a possibility for over 200 years.
“The highest effect of the sun’s rays I have found to be in carbonic acid gas. One of the receivers was filled with it, the other with common air, and the result was as follows:“
In Common Air.
In Carbonic Acid Gas.
“The receiver containing the gas became itself much heated very sensibly more so than the other—and on being removed, it was many times as long in cooling. An atmosphere of that gas would give to our earth a high temperature; and if as some suppose, at one period of its history the air had mixed with it a larger proportion than at present, an increased temperature from its own action as well as from increased weight must have necessarily resulted.”
Eunice Newton Foote’s paper “Circumstances affecting the heat of the Sun’s rays” from the American Journal of Science (1857)
Mrs. Foote wrote this paper in 1857.
Combined Heating Influence on Greenhouse Gases (1980-2019)
12 Million miles journey around our blue planet in 29 days 48 minutes berthing to the ISS.
Video: Sojourner Payload inside the ISS. Credit: Xin Liu, MIT Media Lab Space Exploration Initiative
Video: Astronaut Jessica Meir and Andrew Morgan preparing the Doragon spacecraft with return payload. Source: NASA TV
Photo: Inside the Doragon spacecraft with return payload. Credit: NASA
SpaceX’s 20th contracted Cargo Resupply Mission for NASA to the ISS
Crew Supplies: 602 lbs / 273 kg
Science Investigations: 2,116 lbs / 960 kg
Spacewalk Equipment: 123 lbs / 56 kg
Vehicle Hardware: 483 lbs / 219 kg
Computer Resources: 2 lbs / 1 kg
Total Cargo: 4,358 lbs / 1,977 kg
Total Pressurized Cargo with Packaging: 3,326 lbs / 1,509 kg
Unpressurized Payloads (Bartolomeo Platform): 1,032 lbs / 468 kg
On April 7, the Dragon spacecraft re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere and splashed down in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Baja California with 3,700 lbs / 1,678 kg of return cargo.
Photo: The SpaceX Dragon approaches the space station (March 9, 2020). Credit: NASA Johnson
The evening of March 6, 2020 in Cape Canaveral was a beautiful starry sky. There was 40% possibility of Liftoff Winds violating the weather constraints. Nothing was certain until the Launch Director verified go for lunch at T minus 45 seconds.
-00:38:00 SpaceX Launch Director verifies go for propellant load
-00:35:00 RP-1 (rocket grade kerosene) loading begins
-00:35:00 1st stage LOX (liquid oxygen) loading begins
-00:16:00 2nd stage LOX loading begins
-00:07:58 Dragon transitions to internal power
-00:07:00 Falcon 9 begins pre-launch engine chill
-00:01:00 Command flight computer to begin final prelaunch checks
-00:01:00 Propellant tanks pressurize for flight
-00:00:45 SpaceX Launch Director verifies go for launch
-00:00:03 Engine controller commands engine ignition sequence to start
-00:00:00 Falcon 9 liftoff
00:01:18 Max Q (moment of peak mechanical stress on the rocket)
00:02:18 1st stage main engine cutoff (MECO)
00:02:22 1st and 2nd stages separate
00:02:29 2nd stage engine starts
00:02:35 1st stage boostback burn begins
00:06:32 1st stage entry burn begins
00:08:17 1st stage landing
00:08:35 2nd stage engine cutoff (SECO)
00:09:35 Dragon separates from 2nd stage
00:12:02 Dragon’s solar arrays deploy
02:19:00 Dragon’s Guidance, Navigation and Control bay door opens
All times approximate (Source: SpaceX)
03.09.2020 Capture + Berthing to the ISS
04.07.2020 Release from Canadarm
A SPACESHIP CALLED THE EARTH
Our planet observed from the ISS during the CRS-20 mission
03.15.2020 Kansai JAPAN
My parents were here.
Photo: March 15. 2020, 11:49:06 GMT, Kansai, Japan. Credit: The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center
03.15.2020 Tokyo JAPAN
Many of my friends were here.
Photo: March 15. 2020, 11:50:01 GMT, Tokyo, Kanto, Japan. Credit: The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center
Many of my loved ones live here.
Photo: March 16. 2020, 11:03:00 GMT, Kanto, Chubu and Kansai Japan. Credit: The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center
Photo: March 16. 2020, 19:11:05 GMT, Kanto, Chubu and Kansai Japan. Credit: The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center
03.17.2020 Seoul S.KOREA
Sei was here.
Photo: March 17. 2020. 18:20:22 GMT. Seoul, South Korea. Credit: The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center
New York was in the middle of the COVID-19 crisis.
Photo: April 4. 2020, 18:02:24 GMT, New York. Credit: The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center
I was here.
Photo: April 4. 2020, 18:02:29 GMT, New York. Credit: The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center
From this vantage point,
Our planet is one small spaceship floating in the universe.
“The ISS appeared in the sky for exactly 3 minutes. It was moving much faster than we thought it would be. It was larger and also brighter than we thought it would be. Your father and I, watched it from our balcony tonight. I know you cannot leave from home, and we also do not leave home here for the same reason. But we have a shining star in the sky that we share and that brings me tears. I will look for it again in the sky tomorrow night.”
– A message from Mother in Kobe, Japan (March 20, 2020)
Sojourner 2020 with 18 stories the 9 artists had added to it is one large piece of artwork. Inside a small unit, we carried our ideas, hopes and dreams together. It is my hope that Sojourner 2020 to be remembered as an international collaboration between the artists, engineers and scientists, both male and female from different countries, different professional backgrounds and institutions.
As of September 9. 2020, the three projects that had flown on CRS-20 are in New York City inside a black Pelican case that is labeled with a red NASA sticker that says, “CRITICAL SPACE ITEM HANDLE WITH EXTREME CARE”. As New York City moves on to the full reopening in the future, they will be transformed into an installation in collaboration with a glass artist. Once ready, my plan is to take that to a kindergarten and without any explanations, expose to the eyes of the future before exhibiting elsewhere.
In the future, if there is going to be an opportunity to talk about the project again, I will try to participate as much as I can. I understand that flying to Paris and to Florida and launching a payload into space is not innocent from contributing to the CO2 emission. In that respect, whether my project was a success or a failure I think would depend on whether I can do more good with it than the harm. This only the time can tell.
Lastly, I would like to mention my sincere gratitude and respect to Mr. On Kawara, who has a work with the same tile that I think is a true masterpiece.
I plan this website to remain active at least until July 2021. Please remain safe everyone!
September 6, 2020
MIT Media Lab Space Exploration Initiative
Janet Biggs, Levi Cai, Andrea Ling, Erin Genia, Luis Guzman, Adriana Knouf, Kat Kohl, Xin Liu, Lucia Monge and Henry Tan
ISS National Laboratory
MIT Media Lab Space Exploration Initiative
Expedition 62 Commander
Expedition 62 Flight Engineer
Jessica Ulrika Meir and Andrew R. Morgan
Families, Friends, Collaborators and always the special persons in my life who helped me and supported me
Mariko Ando | Pablo Montealegre Barba | Mark Baumgartner | Stefan Barth | Sicong Mika Chen | Grace Cho | Kathy Cho | Jonas Cuénin | Sophia Diaz | Gershon Dublon | Ariel Ekblaw | Maya Enokida | Daqi Fang | Sarah Graves | Chris Hadfield | Ayako Hirogaki | Alfredo Jaar | Kyoko Kasuya | Noriko Katayama | Jiyoung Kim | Maya Kogahara | Masako Kono | Birgitta Kumlin | Göth Kumlin | Grace Lau | Greg | Yooki Lee | Miwa Mangino | Reechal Mevada | Sueo Mizuma | Takeshi Miyakawa | Saori Moriizumi | Sachi Morimoto | Hajime Moriwaki | Hatsuyoshi Moriwaki | Kimie Moriwaki | Toshiro Nakamura | Soichi Noguchi | Tomomi Noguchi | Kawara On | Akiko Ono | Hirofumi Ono | Sei Ono | Shigehisa Ono | Yasuhito Ono | Yuka Ono | Se Yoon Park | Loure Poupard | Mineka Sugawara | Sao Tanaka | Tommy Voeten | Jeremy N. White | Wendy Wu | Feng Zhenting
Photo: The SpaceX Dragon is attached to the space station (March 9, 2020). Credit: NASA Johnson
Site last updated: November 25, 2020